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Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy prevalence

The prevalence of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies was estimated to be 14/100 000 Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: epidemiology, classification, and diagnostic criteria Epidemiologic studies have helped to define the prevalence and incidence of PM, DM, and IBM and have highlighted differences in risk between men and women and in the age at onset for the different forms of myositis Prevalence and clinical correlates of rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated protein antibodies in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Ide V(1), Bossuyt X(2), Blockmans D(3), De Langhe E(1)(4). Author information: (1)Department of Rheumatology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Prevalence of polymyalgia rheumatica in a cohort of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common rheumatological condition occurring in adults aged over 50 years. The association of PMR with other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis is complex

Incidence and prevalence of idiopathic inflammatory

Epidemiology of Myositis / Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy Annual incidence 5-10/million 2 peaks of onset Childhood(5-15 years Introduction: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies have a reported incidence of 0.1 to 1 per 100,000 person-years and prevalence of 0.55 to 6 per 100,000 in the United States Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy refers to a group of conditions that affect the skeletal muscles (muscles used for movement). Although the condition can be diagnosed at any age, idiopathic inflammatory myopathy most commonly occurs in adults between ages 40 and 60 years or in children between ages 5 and 15 years Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common form of inflammatory myopathy in people age 50 years and older and is characterized by slow, progressive muscle weakness and wasting over the course of months or years

Collapse Section Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is a group of disorders characterized by inflammation of the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy usually appears in adults between ages 40 and 60 or in children between ages 5 and 15, though it can occur at any age Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are rare. One systematic review reported the incidence of IIMs ranged between 1.16 and 19 per million per year, and the prevalence ranged between 2.4 and 33.8 per 100,000. Meyer A, Meyer N, Schaeffer M, et al. Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory myopathies: a systematic review

idiopathic Inflammatory myositis

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: epidemiology

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) encompass a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune diseases characterised by muscle weakness and inflammation, but in antisynthetase syndrome arthritis and interstitial lung disease are more frequent and often inaugurate the disease. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been proposed for IIMs, but they are sparse and heterogeneous High‐resolution manometry in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: Elevated prevalence of esophageal involvement and differences according to autoantibody status and clinical subset Impact and Management of Dysphagia in Inflammatory Myopathies, Current Rheumatology Reports, 10.1007/s11926-020-00950-3, 22, 10, The Brazilian. Diagnosis and treatment of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies David J. Gazeley and Mary E. Cronin Abstract: The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are rare disorders with the unifying feature of proximal muscle weakness. These diseases include polymyositis(PM), dermato-myositis (DM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM) as the most common Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) is a group of rare connective tissue diseases (CTDs) characterised by muscular and extramuscular signs, in which lung involvement is a challenging issue. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the hallmark of pulmonary involvement in IIM, and causes morbidity and mortality, resulting in an estimated excess mortality of 50% in some series

Prevalence and clinical correlates of rheumatoid factor

  1. The global idiopathic inflammatory myopathy treatment market size stood at USD 652.3 million in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 930.6 million by 2026, exhibiting a CAGR of 4.6% during the forecast period. We are in process of revamping Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy Treatment Market with respect to COVID-19 Impact
  2. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), except for sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), present with subacute symmetrical weakness of the limb girdle muscles, an elevated serum creatine kinase activity, and inflammatory cells in the muscle biopsy (necrotizing autoimmune myopathy being an exception). The prevalence was reported to be.
  3. Prevalence of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy by Key Countries, 2018 Advancements in Research and Development of Treatment Options Pipeline Analysi
  4. Myopathies are generally divided into acquired and inherited forms. Most common forms of the acquired myopathies include the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), myopathy associated with medications and toxins, infectious myopathies, and myopathies associated with systemic conditions. IIMs are rare but are often chronic, progressive, and disabling
  5. According to prevalence estimates for the United States, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) affect an estimated 14.0 to 17.4 per 100,000 individuals, although rates vary widely across studies, types of IIM, and populations. 1 There are 4 main types of IIM: dermatomyositis, inclusion body myositis, polymyositis, and necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. 1 These diseases share the underlying.
  6. Objective To describe the methodology used to develop new classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and their major subgroups. Methods An international, multidisciplinary group of myositis experts produced a set of 93 potentially relevant variables to be tested for inclusion in the criteria. Rheumatology, dermatology, neurology and paediatric.

Prevalence of polymyalgia rheumatica in a cohort of

Incidence and prevalence of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies among commercially insured, Medicare supplemental insured, and Medicaid enrolled populations: an administrative claims analysis The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matter Background Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a rare group of autoimmune syndromes characterized by chronic muscle inflammation and muscle weakness with no known cause. Little is known about their incidence and prevalence. This study reports the incidence and prevalence of IIMs among commercially insured and Medicare and Medicaid enrolled populations in the US. Methods We. Background/Purpose: Overall prevalence of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) is commonly reported at 10 per 100,000 but worldwide estimates vary between 1 and 25 per 100,000 depending on region, population, sub-diagnosis, methodological considerations and case sources. In this study we aimed at assessing the prevalence of IIM in Sweden on January 1st, 2012, using population-based. Srivastava P, Dwivedi S, Misra R. Myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies in Indian patients with inflammatory myositis. Rheumatol Int 2016; 36:935-943. Troyanov Y, et al. Novel Classification of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies Based on Overlap Syndrome Features and Autoantibodies

Objective As rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are not routinely tested in idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM), little is known about their prevalence and clinical implications in this patient group. In antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), presence of ACPA is reportedly associated with more severe and erosive arthritis Background Myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSA) are increasingly recognized as important diagnostic and prognostic markers in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) (polymyositis, dermatomyositis, sporadic inclusion body myositis and necrotizing autoimmune myositis). The prevalence of these MSAs in other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases and neuromuscular diseases is unclear The most common acquired inflammatory myopathy over the age of 50. Prevalence ranging from 2.2 per million (Sweden) to 51 per million (southern Australia) Anti-cN1A Ab: (+) in up to 37% of sIBM, compared to <5% of other neuromuscular diseases. Possibly predicts more severe disease. Also seen in Sjogren's syndrome (36% Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are heterogeneous inflammatory disorders causing immune-mediated muscle injury. IIMs are traditionally classified as polymositis and its subtypes (eg, antisynthetase syndrome [ASynS] and overlap myositis [OM]), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) (also called necrotizing autoimmune myopathy [NAM]), sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), and. The mean incidence of adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in Salford, UK, is 17.6 (15.2-20.0)/1 000 000 person years. The incidence of adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies increased significantly over the duration of the study

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of conditions characterised by inflammation of muscles (myositis) and other body systems. The diagnosis can be challenging because of the many potential clinical features and extra-muscular manifestations, which may be seemingly unrelated. An accurate diagnosis requires up-to-date understanding of the clinical manifestations, different. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in adults: A comparative study of Bohan and Peter and European Neuromuscular Center 2004 criteria. Challa S, Jakati S, Uppin MS, Kannan MA, Liza R, Murthy Jagarlapudi MK. Neurol India, 66(3):767-771, 01 May 2018 Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 2976694

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), myositis as part of a rheumatic disease overlap syndrome, myositis of the antisynthetase syndrome, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM). With the exception of IBM, these diseases share the clinical. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by muscle weakness and inflammation. The prevalence of IIMs is 9--14 cases per 100,000 individuals. Patients present with muscle weakness and extramuscular manifestations involving the lung, heart, skin, and musculoskeletal systems Proposed preliminary core set measures for disease outcome assessment in adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001;40(11):1262-73. Troyanov Y et al. Novel classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies based on overlap syndrome features and autoantibodies analysis of 100 French Canadian patients However, their clinical significance in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) remains to be fully clarified. Our objective was to analyze the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-PUF60 antibodies in a large cohort of Chinese IIM patients. In our study, 388 IIM patients, 301 disease controls, and 167 healthy controls (HCs) were involved Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) is classified into four subtypes based on clinical and histopathological features. Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are 2 of those subtypes in addition to immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy and inclusion body myositis. The presence of autoantibodies and inflammatory infiltration in the muscles.

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of chronic, autoimmune conditions affecting primarily the proximal muscles. The most common types are dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). Patients typically present with sub-acute to chronic onset of proximal weakness manifested by difficulty with rising. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), which include dermatomyositis (DM), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), and polymyositis (PM) are rare autoimmune-mediated diseases characterised by the presence of myositis-specific autoantibodies [, , , ]. IIMs are associated with significant non-lethal morbidity and mortality [1,2] To determine the prevalence, distribution, and clinical manifestations of arthritis in a cohort of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Associations with autoantibody status and HLA genetic background were also explored. Methods. Consecutive patients with IIM treated in a single center were included in thi Kostas N. Botsoglou, MD: The etiology of these chronic autoimmune conditions, including lupus and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, is unknown. However, it's multifactorial, and many observational studies have suggested a role for genetic, hormonal, immunologic, and environmental factors

Final myositis response criteria for minimal, moderate

Objectives The magnitude of the genetic contribution to idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) is unknown. In this project, we aimed to investigate the familial aggregation and heritability of IIM. Methods This is a family-based study using nationwide healthcare register data in Sweden. We matched each patient with IIM to individuals without IIM, identified their first-degree relatives and. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are rare. One systematic review reported the incidence of IIMs ranged between 1.16 and 19 per million per year, and the prevalence ranged between 2.4 and 33.8 per 100,000. IIMs can affect people of any age; the peak age of onset is reported to be between 45 and 60 years Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM, collectively referred to as myositis) encompasses dermatomyositis, inclusion body myositis (IBM) and polymyositis, although polymyositis has largely been. Medline ® Abstract for Reference 41 of 'Overview of and approach to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies' 41 PubMed | TI Low prevalence of anti-small ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme antibodies in dermatomyositis patients. AU Muro Y, Sugiura K, Akiyama M S

Myopathies are a group of primary muscle disorders causing muscle weakness, occasionally stiffness, and rarely muscle pain. They can be classified into inherited or acquired myopathy. Acquired myopathy can be further divided into idiopathic (cause unknown), infectious, metabolic, inflammatory, endocrine, and drug induced based on the etiology It can also present itself aggressively as an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, the overlap syndrome of SSc-myositis. Due to the wide range of witnessed pathologies and the different diagnostic criteria that are used, opinions vary on the estimated prevalence of myopathy in SSc with estimates ranging from 3.3% to 14% Tan JA, Roberts-T PJ, Blumbergs P, Hakendorf P, Cox SR, Limaye V. Incidence and prevalence of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in South Australia: a 30-year epidemiologic study of histology-proven cases

Large scale idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) registries have shown a similar pattern of female predominance. However, inflammatory myopathies have a wide variability of clinical manifestations and it remains unclear if differences in prevalence leads to different phenotypes and thus, a different medication response, between males and females Aim: Inflammatory idiopathic myopathies (IIMs) are inflammatory processes affecting skeletal musculature and extramuscular organs. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) involve jaw muscles and temporomandibular joint. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the prevalence of the main TMD symptoms and signs as well as oral implications in IIM patients Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening condition presenting with symptoms like breathlessness, fatigue and syncope. 1 PH can occur as a complication of systemic autoimmune diseases. 2-4 The association with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM), together classified as idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM), is not well known. 5 So far, only a few cases reported on PH in.

Epidemiology The prevalence of inflammatory myopathies is estimated at 1 in 1,00,000. PM as a stand-alone entity is a rare disease. DM affects both children and adults and women more often than men IBM is three times more frequent in men than in women, more common in whites than blacks, and is more likely to affect persons age > 50. 7 The inflammatory myopathies in adult populations encompass a group of illnesses characterized by an idiopathic immune-mediated attack on skeletal muscle that results in muscle weakness. There have been many associations between the inflammatory myopathies and the presence of malignancy, but the etiology of the association is controversial Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies Meena Kalluri, MDa,*, Chester V. Oddis, MDb The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are chronic, acquired, autoimmune disorders causing muscle weakness due to skeletal muscle inflam-mation. Based on clinical, histopathologic, and immunologic features, IIMs have been classifie

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: 8 (28.57%) 42 (10.61%) Ankylosing arthritis: 1 (3.57%) 41 (10.35%) Psoriatic arthritis: 3 (10.71%) 15 (3.79%) Adult onset Still's disease: 2 (7.14%) 13 (3.28%) Systemic sclerosis: 0 (0%) 13 (3.28%) Vasculitis: 1 (3.57%) 7 (1.77%) Sjogren's syndrome: 0 (0%) 5 (1.26%) Concurrent anti-rheumatic treatments Anti. Statins Linked to Idiopathic Inflammatory Myositis. NEW YORK (R Health)— Statin use is associated with an increased likelihood of developing idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM), researchers from Australia report. [Although] the incidence of IIM is rare, with the increasing use of statins worldwide and the severity of this.

The risk of fracture and prevalence of osteoporosis is elevated in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: cross-sectional study from a single Hungarian center Anett Vincze1,2, Levente Bodoki3,2, Katalin Szabó1,2, Melinda Nagy-Vincze1,2, Orsolya Szalmás4, József Varga5, Katalin Dankó1,2, János Gaál1,6,2 and Zoltán Griger1,2. Survival was independent of the presence of ILD and the use of immunosuppressive and vasoactive therapies. Figure 2. Large chart shows the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) among patients with inflammatory myopathy (IM). Small chart shows the breakdown of the 7 percent of patients with right heart catheterization (RHC)-confirmed PH from. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs) is a group of autoimmune disorders, including juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), juvenile polymyositis (JPM) and overlap myositis, that are characterized by proximal muscle weakness, elevated levels of serum muscle enzymes, and pathognomonic skin findings. While the exact etiology of JIIMs is unclear, the presence of myositis specific.

High-resolution manometry in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: Elevated prevalence of esophageal involvement and differences according to autoantibody status and clinical subset Maria Casal-Dominguez, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Marianela Mego, Anna Accarino, Lluis Jubany, Fernando Azpiroz , Albert Selva-O'callagha The lung is one of the most common extra-muscular targets in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prevalent and often devastating manifestation of IIM. IIM-associated ILD (IIM-ILD) contributes to nearly 80% of the mortality in IIM with a reported prevalence of 65% of newly diagnosed IIM cases T1 - Familial autoimmunity in pedigrees of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy patients suggests common genetic risk factors for many autoimmune diseases. AU - Ginn, Lisa R. AU - Lin, Jing Ping. AU - Plotz, Paul H. AU - Bale, Sherri J. AU - Wilder, Ronald L. AU - Mbauya, Angelina. AU - Miller, Frederick W. PY - 1998/3. Y1 - 1998/3. N2 - Objective

The inflammatory myopathies include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM) and inclusion-body myositis (IBM). These idiopathic conditions result in an inflammatory process in muscle, but may also cause inflammation in other organ systems as well. All result in a progressive muscle weakness, but have different pathogenesis and clinical features The objective of this study was to analyse the patterns and prevalence of p62 immunostaining and to quantitate p62 gene expression in muscle biopsies from a large number of patients with different types of myopathic and neurogenic disorders. Accumulation of autophagosome cargo protein p62 is common in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

The Clinical Phenotypes of the Juvenile Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies Mona Shah, PhD, Gulnara Mamyrova, MD, PhD, Ira N. Targoff, MD, Adam M. Huber, MD, MSc, James D. Malley, PhD, Madeline Murguia Rice, PhD, Frederick W. Miller, MD, PhD, Lisa G. Rider, MD, with the Childhood Myositis Heterogeneity Collaborative Study Group*Þ and anti-Mi-2 seen more frequently in patients with JDM, anti. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness. Our aim was to identify a correlation between VDR polymorphisms or haplotypes and myositis. We studied VDR-BsmI , VDR-ApaI , VDR-TaqI , and VDR-FokI polymorphisms and haplotypes in 89 Hungarian poly-/dermatomyositis patients (69 females) and 93 controls (52 females)

Epidemiology of adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

To describe the epidemiology of biopsy-proven idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) in South Australia (SA). Cases of IIM were ascertained by review of all muscle biopsy reports from the Neuropathology Laboratory, Hanson Institute (wherein all adult muscle biopsies in SA are reported) from 1980 to 2009 The idiopathic infl ammatory myopathies are a group of condi-tions characterised by infl ammation of muscles (myositis) and and a prevalence of 14/100,000. 3 Causes of proximal muscle weakness other than idiopathic inflammatory myopathies Inherited myopathies Muscular dystrophies: Becker/Duchenne, facioscapulohumeral, limb girdle.

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy Genetic and Rare

Multicenter Registry on Inflammatory Myositis From the

Inflammatory Myopathies Fact Sheet National Institute of

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: MedlinePlus Genetic

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies - Epidemiology BMJ

NCT03430388. Completed. Yellow Fever Vaccine in Patients With Rheumatic Diseases. Conditions: Systemic Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Spondyloarthritis, Inflammatory Myopathy, Systemic Sclerosis, Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, Takayasu Arteritis, Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis, Sjogren's Syndrome, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Juvenile. A high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), not fully explained by the prevalence of traditional risk factors only, is reported in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). Thus, we investigated if novel markers of CVD risk, like carotid diameter and advanced glycated end products, can better predict increased CVD risk in.

Prevalence of other connective tissue diseases in

Patients with anti-HMGCR-associated disease make up about 6% of adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathy cohorts 2. In addition to NAM, anti-HMGCR antibodies are associated with statins, an intriguing finding given that HMGCR is the pharmacologic target of statins and is upregulated by statin use 2 The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence and outcome of pregnancy in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy patients who became pregnant after the onset of the disease. Female idiopathic inflammatory myopathy patients (173) were included in our study. The patients' charts and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred and four female idiopathic inflammatory myopathy patients. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with myositis is defined by the presence of interstitial changes on radiographic examination. The reported prevalence of ILD varies from 0% to nearly 50%. However, only rarely has the pathological pattern of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) associated with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) been reported. We report five patients with IIM (one with. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies Epidemiology Annual incidence - 1:100,000 Incidence of individual myositides has been limited by the different diagnostic criteria employed in various epidemiological studies IBM is the most common myopathy after age 50 with prevalence of 3.5/100,000 cases Disease of adults (except for Juvenile DM) Women are more commonly affected Genetic predisposition.

Dermatologic Manifestations Of Dermatomyositis | PartyLatika GUPTA | Professor (Assistant) | Sanjay Gandhi Post

N2 - To determine the prevalence, distribution, and clinical manifestations of arthritis in a cohort of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Associations with autoantibody status and HLA genetic background were also explored • Female to male ratio is 2:1 except in inclusion-body myositis where it is reversed. • Prevalence of the disease is the highest in the Japanese and the lowest in blacks. • HLA associations include B8, DR3 and DRW52. Epidemiology Dimachkie MM, Barohn RJ, Amato AA. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

Diagnosis. The clinical history is essential in identifying the presence of a myopathy and narrowing down the differential diagnosis. In particular, the patient should be questioned about medication and recreational drug history (especially alcohol), chemical exposures, exercise intolerance, childhood development, and family history of muscle disease or developmental motor delay Table 1 Diagnostic criteria for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies Bohan and Peter's criteria4-5 ENMC criteria6 Dalakas and Hohlfeld7 Features Features (except inclusion body myositis) Features 1. Symmetrical proximal muscle weakness 2. Elevated serum muscle enzymes 3. EMG consistent with myopathy 4. Muscle biopsy with characteristic features. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and associated comorbidities in Korea from 2006 to 2015. Methods IIM between 2004 to 2015 were identified using the Korean National Health Insurance Service medical claim database Treatment of inflammatory myopathy: emerging therapies and therapeutic targets Siamak Moghadam-Kia, treatment for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and myositis-associated interstitial lung disease. The reasons include a low incidence and prevalence, considerable phenotypic clinical heterogeneity, and the small number of randomized. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy (IIM), commonly termed myositis, refers to a group of rare heterogeneous connective tissue diseases that affect the skeletal muscles and other organ systems. The origin of IIM is unclear, but immunoregulatory abnormalities have been proposed as pathogenic mechanisms [ 6 ]